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Dramatic Piano Phrase

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Dramatic piano phrase. Sound of stinger piano great for use in scary transitions, video games, films, Halloween projects. Best online sfx library. Download for free "Dramatic Piano Phrase" MP3 file has bitrate 192 Kbps, size 253 kilobytes and length 00:11 seconds:

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History of the Piano

The forerunners of the piano were the harpsichords and later invented clavichords. Their shortcomings were a rapidly fading sound, which interfered with legato playing, and a constant volume level (which applies only to the harpsichord), which excluded one of the important expressive means of music - dynamics (volume change).

Piano (English, French piano; German Klavier) is a keyboard stringed instrument with a horizontal (piano) or vertical (piano) arrangement of strings. The sound of the piano is greatly influenced by its design, since the 18th century. Undergone significant changes. The piano consists of an acoustic apparatus (resonant deck, string clothes), keyboard mechanism, supporting structures (futor, metal frame, wirbel bank). The mechanism's complex system of levers makes it possible to transmit force from the player through the key to the hammer, which strikes the string to produce sound. The modern piano range is 7 ⅓ octaves (88 keys).

The piano was invented by the Italian harpsichord master Bartolomeo Cristofori (1655-1732), who worked on the creation of a hammer mechanism for the harpsichord from 1698 (the official date is about 1709). In 1711, the mechanism was described in detail by Scipio Maffei in the Venetian journal Giornale dei letterati d'Italia. The instrument was named “gravicembalo col piano e forte” (harpsichord with a quiet and loud sound), - pianoforte - and later the name of the piano was fixed. The invention of B. Cristofori laid down the main details of the modern piano mechanism - hammer, pin, schulter, fenger, damper. The invention of Cristofori marked the beginning of the development of the mechanics of the English system. Other types of mechanics were developed by Marius in France (1716) and Schroeter in Germany (1717–21).

In subsequent years, the improvement in the design of the piano was associated with the evolution of the keyboard mechanism, the introduction of a cast-iron frame, pedals, an increase in the range, and a change in the arrangement of the strings. K. G. Schroeter, I. A. Silbermann, I. A. Stein, I. A. Streicher, I. K. Zumpe, A. Beckers, S. Erar, J. Blutner, J. Brinsmead.

In 1721, the German musician and teacher Gottlieb Schroeter (1699-1782) invented a fundamentally different mechanism in which a hammer attached to the end of a key was tossed up and hit the string (Prellmechanik). In the second quarter of the XVIII century. German organ masters, of which I. Stein and G. Silbermann are the most famous, begin to manufacture pianos. Johann Andreas Stein (1728-1792), a student of G. Silbermann (1683-1734), who realized the idea of G. Schroeter, improved this mechanism in 1770. Now the pianist could more easily perform virtuoso works, but a significant drawback was a weak rehearsal. The Stein mechanism (Prellzungenmechanik) was called “Viennese” or “German” and was in use almost unchanged until the second quarter of the 19th century.

Since the 1750s in London, Johann Christoph Zumpe (1735-1800) began to make quadrangular pianos, supplying them with a slightly modified Cristofori mechanism.

Since the 1760s the piano is widely distributed in all European countries, including Russia.

Sebastian Erard invented the “double rehearsal” mechanic, which made it possible to extract a sound by pressing the key again quickly from half a stroke. In the mechanics of the English system, such a repetition was possible only when the key was fully raised.

In Russia, the piano business was primarily associated with St. Petersburg. In the 18th century alone, more than 50 piano masters worked there. The development of piano factory production in the first half of the 19th century was influenced by the activities of the first Russian piano manufacturer, the supplier of the Imperial Court, the English master G. Fevrier, the German masters I.-A. Tishner, K.-I. Wirta, A.-H. Schroeder, I.-F. Schroeder and, since 1840, the Belgian G.-G. Lichtenthal[2]. To date, the names of more than 700 piano masters who worked in Russia before the revolution of 1917 are known. These studies[3], as well as issues of attribution and examination[4], of the piano are being carried out by Candidate of Philological Sciences, piano master of the St. Petersburg Conservatory M.V. Sergeev. He prepared the “Illustrated Catalog of Music Companies in Russia 1725-1918”.

In the middle of the 19th century, the factories of J. Blutner and K. Bechstein were opened in Germany, and in the USA - Steinway and Sons, which had no equal for many years.

In the 20th century, fundamentally new instruments appeared - electronic pianos and synthesizers, as well as a special form of sound production - a prepared piano.

The first piece of music written specifically for the piano appeared in 1732 (sonata by Lodovico Giustini). However, en masse, composers began to focus on the piano rather than the harpsichord forty or fifty years later, in the days of Haydn and Mozart.

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